Understory Management in Organic Tree Fruits and Other Woody Perennials
|CSANR Project 4||Status: complete|
|Annual Entries:||Org2003:004 (2003)|
|Progress Reports:||(2004) http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/OrganicCropResearch/ProgressReports04/GranatsProgressReport04Understory.pdf |
Mullinix, K. and Granatstein, D. 2011. Potential nitrogen contributions from legumes in Pacific Northwest apple orchards. Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 11:74-87.
Granatstein, D., Wiman, M., Kirby, E., Mullinix, K. 2010. Sustainability trade-offs in organic orchard floor management. Acta Hort. 873:115-122.
TerAvest, D., J.L. Smith, L. Carpenter-Boggs, L.Hoagland, D. Granatstein, and J.P. Reganold. 2010. Influence of orchard floor management and compost application timing on N partitioning in organically managed apple trees. HortScience. 45:637-642.
Granatstein, D.* and E. Sanchez. 2009. Research knowledge and needs for orchard floor management in organic tree fruit systems. Intl. J. Fruit Science 9:257-281.
Wiman, M.R., E.M. Kirby, D.M. Granatstein,* and T.P. Sullivan. 2009. Cover crops influence meadow vole presence in organic orchards. HortTech 19:558-562.
Hoagland, L., Carpenter-Boggs, L., Granatstein, D.*, Mazzola, M., Smith, J., Peryea, F., and Reganold, J. P. 2008. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard. Biol. Fert. Soils 45:11-18.
Granatstein, D.* and K. Mullinix. 2008. Mulching options for Northwest organic and conventional orchards. HortScience 43(1):45-50.
Lacey. L.A., D. Granatstein,* S.P. Arthurs, H. Headrick, and R.F. Fritts Jr. 2006. Use of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) in conjunction with mulches for control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 41: 107-119.
Hoagland, L., Carpenter-Boggs, L. Granatstein, D., Mazzola, M., Peryea, F., Smith, J., and Reganold, J. 2007. Nitrogen cycling and partitioning under alternative organic orchard floor management strategies. Proceedings Western Nutrient Management Symposium, Salt Lake City, UT. 7:117-123.
Granatstein, D. 2007. Nitrogen for organic orchards. Proceedings 102nd Annual Meeting Wash. St. Hort. Assoc., Yakima, WA, Dec. 4-6, 2006. p. 58-63.
Granatstein, D., A. Groff, and P. Andrews. 2009. Increasing profitability with organic orchard floor management alternatives. WSDA Specialty Crop Block Grant. $157,526. Granatstein, D. and H. Collins. 2008. Wilbur-Ellis. Nitrogen release from organic by-products with potential fertilizer use. $5,120. Lacey, L. and D. Granatstein. 2006. Entomopathogenic nematodes for codling moth control. Becker Underwood Ltd. $5,000. Cogger, C., A. Bary, D. Granatstein, M. Ostrom. 2003. Assessing soil quality in organic management systems. USDA-SARE $107,696. Granatstein, D. and K. Mullinix. 2003. Alternative weed control in high density orchards. Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission $1500. Granatstein, D. 2003. Spray-on paper mulch for use in organic row crops. Small Planet Foods $3600. Granatstein, D. 2003. NutriSmart, a biological fertilizer. Wilbur-Ellis Co. $2200. Granatstein, D. 2003. Compost to enhance apple tree growth. Soos Creek Organics Inc. $2000. Hogue, E. and D. Granatstein. 2004. Mulching in high-density apple orchards. WA TFRC $1500.
|Impacts and Outcomes:|
Two graduate students worked on the project and had their research done there. Project results have been shared with NRCS to support their efforts for practice standards eligible for cost share. One grower used the information to secure $160,000 in cost share for his organic orchards.
In 2010, the cooperating grower in one on-farm trial expanded the practice we are testing to an additional 80 acres. I personally viewed the fields. A neighboring farm adopted the practice on 20 ac that I personally viewed. The cooperating grower on the other project applied the practices on over 100 acre of orchard. One grower measured a $2000 increase in revenue where wood chip mulch was used on sandy soils (40 acres). In a recent grower survey (n=74), 51% of the growers reported use of legume cover crops to supply nitrogen in their orchards, which is the focus of one of the research projects.