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7770. Zentner, R.P., M.A. Stumborg, and C.A. Campbell. 1989. Effect of crop rotations and fertilization on energy balance in typical production systems on the Canadian prairies.. Agric., Ecosys., Environ. 25:217-232.
Non-renewable energy inputs, metabolizable energy output, and the energy efficiency of 10 spring wheat rotations were examined over 18 yr. Conventional tillage was used. Results showed total energy input per unit of land was lowest for the traditional wheat-fallow rotation (3482 MJ/ha), intermediate for N and P fertilized fallow-wheat-wheat (4470 MJ/ha), and highest for fertilized continuous wheat (7100 MJ/ha). Fuel accounted for 30-50% of the energy inputs, and fertilizer accounted for 15-49%. Pesticides were only 4-11%. Energy output to input ratios and the quantity of wheat per unit of energy decreased with cropping intensity. The average energy O/I was: F-W 3.6, F-W-W 3.3, cont. W 2.6. Rotations that included flax or cereal forage crops had the lowest energy efficiency.