Browse on keywords: legume manure
Search results on 05/21/13
10307. Guldan, S.. 1991. Progress report, Substituting legumes for fallow in U.S. Great Plains wheat production.. Carrington Research Station, North Dakota State Univ., Carrington, ND.
Black medic could be most useful as a substitute for fallow in eastern and central North Dakota if increased winter-hardiness were introduced into the germplasm and if seed costs were reduced. It would work best when grown as a biennial. Hard seed is produced to provide self-seeding. Medic used less soil moisture below two feet depth than sweetclover and hairy vetch.
108. Abernathy, R.H. and W.H. Bohl. 1987. Effects of forage legumes on yield and nitrogen uptake by a succeeding barley crop.. Applied Agr. Res., 2:97-102.
In Wyoming, the effects of spring-planted alfalfa, Austrian winter pea, hairy vetch and sainfoin, with and without a legume forage harvest, on a succeeding barley crop were compared under conditions of high elevation and a short growing season. Uncut hairy vetch, Austrian winter pea, and cut or uncut alfalfa provided barley growth greater than or equal to 100 kg of fertilizer N/ha. Barley following sainfoin performed better than the barley grown with no fertilizer or legume, but did not perform as well as the barley control treatment that received 100 kg of N/ha. Alfalfa performed best of all under these conditions, and provided adequate barley growth even with the removal of 3.7 Mg/ha forage.
483. Army, T.J. and J.C. Hide. 1959. Effects of green manure crops on dryland wheat production in the Great Plains area of Montana.. Agron. J. 51:196-198.
This paper summarizes the results from the green manure treatments which were a part of a 38-year study (1914-1951) of numerous small grain rotations involving wheat, barley, oats, corn, and fallow in various combinations. The rotation experiments were carried out at several Great Plains experiment stations including Havre, Huntley, and Moccasin, Montana, and Sheridan, Wyoming. The results indicated that winter rye, field pea, and sweetclover green manures had no effect at all or a depressing effect on small grain yields the following year as compared to ordinary fallow. The results of this unreplicated study are the most likely reason that research on dryland legume-cereal rotations essentially ceased in Montana until 1978. Although legume green manures, ideally, may impart several beneficial effects on ensuing cereal crops, the primary benefit is the release of symbiotically fixed nitrogen. The legume green manures in the long-term study at Moccasin and Huntley had little chance of improving wheat yields compared to ordinary fallow for several reasons. First, the soils involved, and most Montana soils indeed, had not yet become deficient in N as they are today. Organic matter had begun to decline by the 1950's but it still provided ample N to meet the needs of wheat yield potentials of that era. Also, the management of the legumes in these early studies is questionable as one passage from the report suggested that when the green manure crops were not successfully established, thee was invariably a good crop of Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) to plow under. Possible other factors lending to their failure include inefficient storage of winter precipitation, late seeding, poor timing of plow down, and a lack of nodulation which continues to be a problem of dryland legume culture today, especially with small-seeded legumes. The above substantiate their conclusion that the main effect of the green manures was to reduce the water available to the ensuing grain crops. A re-examination of the Moccasin and Huntley, Montana data indicates that grain yields after green manures were slightly higher than grain yields after fallow for eight of the last ten years of the study.
555. Auld, D.L., G.A. Murray, and R.V. Withers. 1983. Austrian winter peas: a green manure crop for Idaho.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #652.
Good % of pea N is from soil; best to plow under right after flowering; Melrose contributed 278 lb/ac of vine N; winter peas produced slightly more biomass than spring peas, but fall peas can be plowed 2 weeks earlier; spring peas accumulated 70 lb N/ac more than winter peas; variable cost of WW-SB-SF = $63/ac, uses 120 lb N/ac; for WW-SB-pea GM = $59/ac, with only 40 lb N/ac; must consider intangible benifits; recommended green manure crop every 3-5 years. T: organic matter yield, nitrogen content, costs.
602. Badaruddin, M., and D.W. Meyer. 1989. Forage legume effects on soil nitrogen and grain yield, and nitrogen nutrition of wheat.. Agron. J. 81:419-424.
Five forage legumes (annual alfalfa, perennial alfalfa, sweetclover, red clover, and hariy vetch) were evaluated as possible replacements for summerfallow in the northern Great Plains. Hard red spring wheat was grown after all plowdowns, and after wheat, and a fallow check. Legume species were not significantly different in hay yields, and root and crown N content across environments, although alfalfa and sweetclover had 35-83% greater N contents than other species. Soil nitrate N in the spring following legumes was greater than following fertilized wheat, but less than following fallow across environments. Grain yield and N uptake of wheat following forage legumes generally were equal to those following fallow, but greater than those following wheat. These results suggest that including 1-yr forage legumes in crop sequence would be a better option than fallow in the higher moisture areas. T: N content of forage leguems; wheat yields as influenced by previous crop; N efficiency
805. Bezdicek, D.. no date. (STEEP green manure plots). unpublished.
Examined 3 legume green manures (red clover, Austrian winter pea, hairy vetch) and harvested spring pea, with 3 incorporations (plow, disk, chemical kill) and 3 N rates (0, 67, 134 kg N/ha). Prior to tillage, red clover and hairy vetch depleted 3.4 cm/m more moisture than spring pea, and AWP depleted 1.8 cm/m more. Soil residual N was highest under spring pea and lowest under red clover. N fixation estimates ranged from 76 for spring pea to 114 for AWP. Winter wheat yield was highest following red clover that had been plowed or disked. Chemical kill appeared to inhibit wheat yield, and N fertilizer could not overcome this depression. Yields after AWP were lower than red clover but higher than spring peas. Recovery of pea and wheat residue N ranged from 7-10% by a following wheat crop. Overseeding of red clover in a spring cereal was successful. T: residual moisture, N; yield response to the various treatments; recovery of N.
826. Bezdicek, D. and R. Lockerman. no date. Crop rotation and the response of cereal crops to nitrogen in the PNW. unpublished.
Experiments conducted at Pullman, WA and Bozeman, MT. Year 1 - legumes (rainfall -Pullman 500 mm, Bozeman 480 mm). Year 2 -Pullman winter wheat + N (rainfall 350 mm); Bozeman barley + N (rainfall 200 mm). Compared fababean, pea, lentil, chickpea, fallow at both locations. Pullman legumes were used as green manure, Bozeman legumes were harvested for seed. N fertilizer equivalents ranged from 30-86 kg/ha N at Pullman (fallow = 125) and from 27-81 kg/ha N at Bozeman (fallow = 53). All cereals responded to added N, although less so at Pullman. More N was removed in seed than was fixed. Seed legumes appeared to fix 50-100 kg/ha N. The rotation effect was more significant at Pullman. T: cereal yields; fertilizer N equivalent; moisture depletion.
835. Bezdicek, D.F.. 1990 Jan.. Crop rotation studies. presentation at STEEP Annual Review, Moscow, ID.
Several studies were described in which different legume green manures were grown before winter wheat and treated with different residue management. Wheat yields were consistently depressed following chemically-killed legumes in the first study, but not in the second. Under chemical kill, there was a 40 bu/ac wheat yield response to soil fumigation. Part of the fumigation response appeared to be higher available N. Also, it appeared that chemical kill may be increasing N mineralization. Results are being prepared for publication.
1113. Buffum, B.C.. 1900. Alfalfa as a fertilizer and soil improver.. WY Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 44.
Five years of alfalfa in the rotation increased the yield of the following crops by 65, 108, and 55% for spring wheat, oats, and potatoes respectively.
1540. Davis, J.B.. 1988. Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) with differential levels of glucosinolates evaluated to suppress Aphanomyces root rot.. M.S. Thesis.
Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) with differential levels of glucosinolates were evaluated as a green manure crop to suppress Aphanomyces root rot of peas.