Kruger Publications

60 Publications

Biogas Upgrading on Dairy Digesters

N. Kennedy, G. Yorgey, C. Frear, D. Evans, J. Jensen, C. Kruger. 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS180E.  This fact sheet is to provide farmers, third party project developers, regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders with a basic understanding of the chemical composition of renewable natural gas, the most appropriate end-use options for dairy digesters, and some of the more common techniques used to clean biogas to RNG quality at dairy digesters. In describing specific technologies, the authors aim to provide information based on the current literature, but not to favor one technology over another. For additional detail or information about other technologies, more comprehensive reports and reviews are available (Krich et al. 2005; Ryckebosch et al. 2011; Jensen 2011).

On-Farm Co-Digestion of Dairy Manure with High-Energy Organics

N. Kennedy, G. Yorgey, C. Frear, C. Kruger 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS172E. Anaerobic Digestion Systems Series provides research-based information to improve decision-making for incorporating, augmenting, and maintaining anaerobic digestion systems for manures and food by-products. This publication focuses on pre-consumer food wastes that can sustainably be used as substrates for co-digestion with dairy manure and increase the value of co-products. Topics covered include complementary and problematic substrates, the substrate procurement process, regulations, and solutions for co-digestion processing issues.

Anaerobic digestion effluents and processes: the basics

S. M. Mitchell, N. Kennedy, J. Ma, G. Yorgey, C. Kruger,  J. L. Ullman, C. Frear.  Sept 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS171E. Anaerobic digesters are used worldwide to produce bioenergy and sustainably treat organic waste from municipal, industrial, and agricultural operations. This fact sheet reviews the basic elements of anaerobic digestion and the process used by digesters, including the types of digesters, biochemistry of influents and effluents, laboratory evaluations and optimizing anaerobic digesting through modeling.

Modeling environmental change: A guide to understanding model results that explore the impacts of climate change on regional environmental systems

Allen, E., G. Yorgey, K. Rajagopalan, and C. Kruger. 2015. WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS159E.

On-Farm Evaluation and Demonstration of Small-Scale Biogas Technology

Kruger, C. 2009.  Final Report to USDA SARE. This project supported the development, fabrication and demonstration of a biogas technology application for small farms.

Anaerobic Digester Project and System Modifications: An Economic Analysis

Galinato, S., C. Kruger, and C. Frear.  2015. WSU Extension Publication EM090E.  This publication introduces readers to key concerns regarding the profitability of anaerobic digestion systems and includes a discussion of general project costs and potential revenue sources. This publication also examines the potential profitability of three alternative anaerobic digester systems: (a) combined heat and power, which is the baseline system; (b) boiler as a substitute for combined heat and power; and (c) renewable natural gas infrastructure.

Increasing resilience among cereal-based farmers in the Inland Pacific Northwest – Farmer to Farmer Case Studies

Yorgey, Georgine, Kathleen Painter, Hilary Davis, Kristy Borrelli, Sylvia Kantor, Leigh Bernacchi, R. Dennis Roe, Chad Kruger  2014.  Video and print case studies part of REACCH PNA project. The goal of these case studies to inspire others to take management risks on their farms that can improve their overall sustainability and resiliency into the future. Future case studies are in progress and will focus on farmers who manage water in irrigated systems, tillage practices and residue management in unique ways.

The Rationale for Recovery of Phosphorus and Nitrogen from Dairy Manure

Yorgey, G., C. Frear, C. Kruger, T. Zimmerman. 2014. WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS136E.

Site-Specific Trade-offs of Harvesting Cereal Residues as Biofuel Feedstocks in Dryland Annual Cropping Systems of the Pacific Northwest, USA

Huggins, D.R., C.E. Kruger, K.M. Painter, D.P. Uberuaga. BioEnergy Research. June 2014, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 598-608.

BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

Adam, J. C., J. C. Stephens, S. H. Chung, M. P. Brady, R. D. Evans, C. E. Kruger, B. K. Lamb, M. Liu, C. O. Stöckle, J. K. Vaughan, K. Rajagopalan, J. A. Harrison, C. L. Tague, A. Kalyanaraman, Y. Chen, A. Guenther, F. Leung, L. R. Leung, A. B. Perleberg, J. Yoder, E. Allen, S. Anderson, B. Chandrasekharan, K. Malek, T. Mullis, C. Miller, T. Nergui, J. Poinsatte, J. Reyes, J. Zhu, J. S. Choate, X. Jiang, R. Nelson, J. Yoon, G. G. Yorgey, K. Johnson, K. J. Chinnayakanahalli, A. F. Hamlet, B. Nijssen, and V. Walden. Climatic Change, 2014. (DOI) 10.1007/s10584-014-1115-2

Agriculture – Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation

Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Susan M. Capalbo, Laurie L. Houston, Jodi Johnson-Maynard, Chad Kruger, & Beau Olen. Chapter 6 in, Dalton, M.M., P.W. Mote, and A.K. Snover [Eds.]. 2013. Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities. Washington, D.C. Island Press.

Dairy Waste Biorefinery

Kennedy, N., C. Frear, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Kruger, and S. Chen. 2013. Concept illustration and description.

Organic Waste Biorefinery

Kennedy, N., C. Frear, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Kruger, and S. Chen. 2013. Concept illustration and description.

Critical Research Needs for Successful Food Systems Adaptation to Climate Change

Miller, M., M. Anderson, C. Francis, C. Kruger, C. Barford, J. Park, and B. McCown. 2013.   Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development.

Anaerobic Digestion (AD) Technology Certificate Program

Website highlighting a WSU – Bellingham Technical College partnership to offer training for anaerobic digestion technicians.  Full curriculum, videos and more available online.

Anaerobic Digestion Systems: Integrating emerging technologies to improve environmental and economic impact

C. Frear, C.Kruger, H. Collins, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Stockle, R. Shumway, G. Astill, T. Ewing, N. Kennedy, T. Khalil, and G. Yorgey. July 2013. Academic Poster.

2011-2013 Anaerobic Digestion Related R&D Research Summary for WSU ARC/WSDA Appendix-A Funds

Frear, C, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Kruger, S. Chen. 2013.

Anaerobic Digestion: Beyond Waste Management

May 2013. CSANR produced a 7.5 minute video showing how state-of-the-art anaerobic digestion systems can offer multiple benefits to society.

What do we currently know about the impacts of climate change on Pacific Northwest cropland agriculture?

Kruger, C. 2012. Recorded webinar.  Part of Pacific Northwest Agriculture and Climate Change Webinar Series available here .

BioEarth: A regional-scale earth system model to inform land and water management decisions

Adam, J.C., Rajagopalan, K., Stockle, C.O., Kruger, C.E., Brady, M.P., Barber, M.E., Chinnayakanahalli, K.J., Yorgey, G.G., Nelson, R.L., Dinesh, S., Malek, K., Yoder, J., Chung, S., Vaughan, J.K., Leung, F., Lamb, B.K., Evans, R.D., Harrison, J., Stephens, J., Guenther, A., Kalyanaraman, A., Leung, L.R., Liu, M., Tague, C., Perleberg, A.B., Chen, Y., Norton, T.M., Jiang, X., & Zhu, J. (2012). BioEarth: A regional-scale earth system model to inform land and water management decisions. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, OH.22 October 2012.  The poster can be downloaded via link.

Methods for Producing Biochar and Advanced Biofuels in Washington State Part 2: Literature Review of the Biomass Supply Chain and Preprocessing Technologies From Field to Pyrolysis Reactor

Garcia-Perez, M., C. Kruger, M. Fuchs, S. Sokhansanj, P. Badger, J. Garcia-Nunez, T. Lewis, and S. Kantor. 2012. Second Project Report. Department of Biological Systems Engineering and the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 79 pp.

Anaerobic Digester Technician video – Bellingham Technical College

WSU and Bellingham Technical College produced this video as a part of their grant-funded Anaerobic Digestion Technician certificate program. The video explains the technical aspects of operating and maintaining an anaerobic digester.

Building Markets for Biofertilizers — Perceptions and Performance

Video of keynote address by Chad Kruger at the 26th Annual BioCycle West Coast Conference April 2012.

Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

Rajagopalan, K., K. Chinnayakanahalli, J.C. Adam, C.S. Stockle, R. Nelson, M. Brady, M.E. Barber, S. Dinesh, K. Malek, G. Yorgey, C. Kruger, T. Marsh, and J. Yoder, 2011.  AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 6.

Extracting valuable energy, carbon and nutrient resources from organic waste

WSU scientists have conducted extensive research on Anaerobic Digestion (AD) as a technology for recovery of methane (energy), stable carbon, and nutrients from organic wastes such as manure, food processing wastes and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). Our research has evaluated the technical and economic performance of commercially available systems, developed improved AD reactors, and commercialized WSU patented nutrient recovery technology. This webinar, presented by CSANR director Chad Kruger and CSANR scientist Craig Frear, will provide an update on the latest results from the WSU Climate Friendly Farming Project’s AD research.

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