Frear, C., W. Liao, T. Ewing, and S. Chen. Clean – Soil, Air, Water 2011,39 (7), 697–704.
Liao, W., Frear, C., Oakley, K., Chen, S. (2010). Biosystems Engineering 106(3), 278-285.
Chapter 6 in Climate Friendly Farming: Improving the Carbon Footprint of Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest. Full report available at http://csanr.wsu.edu/pages/Climate_Friendly_Farming_Final_Report/.
Chapter 11 in Climate Friendly Farming: Improving the Carbon Footprint of Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest. Full report available at http://csanr.wsu.edu/pages/Climate_Friendly_Farming_Final_Report/.
Liao W., C. Frear and S. Chen, June 2007. This project compiled a literature search for biomass chemical characterization and conducted supplemental laboratory study of forty two feedstocks for 33 parameters such as dry matter, COD, carbohydrates, lipids, elemental and mineral matter, and standard properties such as protein, fiber, pH, etc. A follow-on report will group similar feedstocks, assess potential energy conversion technologies and conduct an economic analysis of feedstock collection and energy production.
Chen S, Wen Z, Liao W, Liu C, Kincaid RL, Harrison JH, Elliott DC, Brown MD, Stevens DJ (2005). Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 121:999-1015.
Chen, S., J.H. Harrison, W. Liao, D. C. Elliott, C. Liu, M. D. Brown, Z. Wen, A. E. Solana, R. L. Kincaid, D. J. Stevens. Dec. 2003. Final Technical Report PNNL-14495.