Waste to Fuels Publications
Jim Jensen , Dr. Craig Frear , Dr. Jingwei Ma , Chad Kruger , Rita L. Hummel , Georgine Yorgey , WSU Fact Sheet FS235E. November 2016. This publication describes the composition and separation process for fibrous solids that result from the digestion of dairy manures. It also reviews both current and future potential uses of fiber. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
Research and outreach website. This project was directed by Gregmar I. Galinato, with co-directors Suzette P. Galinato, C. Richard Shumway, and Jonathan K. Yoder. In an era of increased concern about the influence of carbon on the environment, the U.S. government has intervened, requiring the use of biofuels in an attempt to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. This project focuses on one of those biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, and the countervailing forces influencing its development, especially in the Pacific Northwest.
Profits from pollutants: Economic feasibility of integrated anaerobic digester and nutrient management systems
Astill, G.M. and C.R. Shumway. Journal of Environmental Management. 2016. In Press.
Collins, H. P., E. Kimura, C. S. Frear, and C. E. Kruger. 2016. Agron. J. 108:2036-2049. doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0302
Galinato, S. P., C. E. Kruger, and C. Frear. Sept. 2016. WSU Fact Sheet TB27E. This publication analyzes the economic feasibility of three nutrient recovery technologies that work in tandem with anaerobic digester systems. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
Khalil, Tariq M. , Stewart S. Higgins, Pius M. Ndegwa, Craig S. Frear, Claudio O. Stöckle. Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 182, 1 November 2016, Pages 230-237, ISSN 0301-479.
Kennedy, N., G. Yorgey, C. Frear, and C.E. Kruger. July 2016. WSU Fact Sheet EM088E. This publication discusses the impacts of incorporating co-digestion at dairy-based anaerobic digesters. That is, mixing manure with non-manure waste in anaerobic digesters. This information is based on stakeholder perspectives and a literature review of infrastructure, operational upgrades, and related costs and revenues when non-manure wastes are added to dairy digesters. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
S. M. Mitchell, N. Kennedy, J. Ma, G. Yorgey, C. Kruger, J. L. Ullman, C. Frear. Sept 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS171E. This fact sheet reviews the basic elements of anaerobic digestion and the process used by digesters, including the types of digesters, biochemistry of influents and effluents, laboratory evaluations and optimizing anaerobic digesting through modeling. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
N. Kennedy, G. Yorgey, C. Frear, C. Kruger 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS172E. This publication focuses on pre-consumer food wastes that can sustainably be used as substrates for co-digestion with dairy manure and increase the value of co-products. Topics covered include complementary and problematic substrates, the substrate procurement process, regulations, and solutions for co-digestion processing issues. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
N. Kennedy, G. Yorgey, C. Frear, D. Evans, J. Jensen, C. Kruger. 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS180E. This fact discusses the chemical composition of renewable natural gas, the most appropriate end-use options for dairy digesters, and some of the more common techniques used to clean biogas to RNG quality at dairy digesters. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
Galinato, S., C. Kruger, and C. Frear. 2015. WSU Extension Publication EM090E. This publication introduces readers to key concerns regarding the profitability of anaerobic digestion systems and examines the potential profitability of three alternative anaerobic digester systems: (a) combined heat and power, which is the baseline system; (b) boiler as a substitute for combined heat and power; and (c) renewable natural gas infrastructure. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
Technology Research and Extension Related to Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure, 2013-2015 biennium
Chen, S., C. Frear, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Kruger, A. Abghari, P. Ai, N. Abu-Lail, G. Astill, I. Dallmeyer, M. Flury, A. Fortuna, A. Gao, J. Garcia-Nunez, R. Ghoghare, J.B. Harsh, H. Iqbal, J. Jensen, N Kennedy, J. Ma, S. Mitchell, M. Smith, W. Suliman, D. Wang, G. Yorgey, L. Yu, Q. Zhao, S. Zhang, and T. Zhu. 2015. Washington State Department of Agriculture, Olympia, WA.
Chen, S., C. Frear, M. Garcia-Perez, J. Jensen, D. Sjoding, C. Kruger, N. Abu-Lail, G. Astill, I. Dallmeyer, M. Flury, A. Fortuna, J. Garcia-Nunez, S. Hall, J.B. Harsh, H. Iqbal, N Kennedy, J. Ma, S. Mitchell, B. Pecha, R. Pelaez-Smaniego, A. Seker, M. Smith, W. Suliman, G. Yorgey, L. Yu, and Q. Zhao. 2016. Publication 16-07-008. Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA.
Evaluation of an integrated ammonia stripping, recovery, and biogas scrubbing system for use with anaerobically digested dairy manure
Jiang, A., Zhang, T., Zhao, Q., Chen, S., Li, X., Frear, C. (2014). Biosystems Engineering, 119: 117-126.
The selective removal of H2S over CO2 from biogas in a bubble column using pretreated digester effluent
Kennedy, N., Zhao, Q., Ma, J., Chen, S., and Frear, C. (2015). Separation and Purification Technology 144, 240-247.
Anaerobic digestion of C1-C4 light oxygenated organic compounds derived from the torrefaction of lignocellulosic materials
Liaw, S.S., Frear, C., Lei, W., Zhang, S., Garcia-Perez, M. (2015). Fuel Processing Technology, 131: 150-158.
Zhao, Q., Ma, J., Zeb, I., Yu, L., Chen, S., Zheng, Y.M., and Frear, C. (2015). Chemical Engineering Journal 279, 31-37.
Astill, G., R. Shumway, and C. Frear. 2016. This tool calculates the economic value of investment under a variety of technology and price scenarios for an AD system. The budget calculator includes options for anaerobic digestion, codigestion, compressed natural gas, combined heat and power, environmental credits, fiber solids separation, phosphorous solids separation, struvite precipitation, ammonium sulfate recovery, and water ultra-filtration/reverse osmosis.
The Market Impact of Widespread Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion with Nutrient Recovery Technology in US Dairy Industry
Astill, G.M. and C.R. Shumway. Washington State University, School of Economic Sciences Working Paper 2016-2, March 2016.
Astill, G.M. and C.R. Shumway. Washington State University, School of Economic Sciences Working Paper 2016-1, February 2016.
Murray, T., F. Resende, and G. Luo. 2014. WSU Fact Sheet FS140E. The United States has targeted biofuels generated from domestic biomass supplies as a significant contributor for future liquid fuel supplies. Reliance on domestic fuel production opens the door for a wide range of opportunities for natural resource managers, farmers, and other landowners who will be instrumental in developing the industry, its technologies, and its utilization of agricultural crop residues and forestry biomass. This publication discusses bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis, its applications, and associated biomass feedstocks.
Kruger, C. 2009. Final Report to USDA SARE. This project supported the development, fabrication and demonstration of a biogas technology application for small farms.
Yorgey, G., C. Frear, C. Kruger, T. Zimmerman. 2014. WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS136E. This fact sheet is part of the AD Systems Series.
Site-Specific Trade-offs of Harvesting Cereal Residues as Biofuel Feedstocks in Dryland Annual Cropping Systems of the Pacific Northwest, USA
Huggins, D.R., C.E. Kruger, K.M. Painter, D.P. Uberuaga. BioEnergy Research. June 2014, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 598-608.