Biogas Upgrading on Dairy Digesters

N. Kennedy, G. Yorgey, C. Frear, D. Evans, J. Jensen, C. Kruger. 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS180E.  This fact sheet is to provide farmers, third party project developers, regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders with a basic understanding of the chemical composition of renewable natural gas, the most appropriate end-use options for dairy digesters, and some of the more common techniques used to clean biogas to RNG quality at dairy digesters. In describing specific technologies, the authors aim to provide information based on the current literature, but not to favor one technology over another. For additional detail or information about other technologies, more comprehensive reports and reviews are available (Krich et al. 2005; Ryckebosch et al. 2011; Jensen 2011).

On-Farm Co-Digestion of Dairy Manure with High-Energy Organics

N. Kennedy, G. Yorgey, C. Frear, C. Kruger 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS172E. Anaerobic Digestion Systems Series provides research-based information to improve decision-making for incorporating, augmenting, and maintaining anaerobic digestion systems for manures and food by-products. This publication focuses on pre-consumer food wastes that can sustainably be used as substrates for co-digestion with dairy manure and increase the value of co-products. Topics covered include complementary and problematic substrates, the substrate procurement process, regulations, and solutions for co-digestion processing issues.

Anaerobic digestion effluents and processes: the basics

S. M. Mitchell, N. Kennedy, J. Ma, G. Yorgey, C. Kruger,  J. L. Ullman, C. Frear.  Sept 2015. WSU Fact Sheet FS171E. Anaerobic digesters are used worldwide to produce bioenergy and sustainably treat organic waste from municipal, industrial, and agricultural operations. This fact sheet reviews the basic elements of anaerobic digestion and the process used by digesters, including the types of digesters, biochemistry of influents and effluents, laboratory evaluations and optimizing anaerobic digesting through modeling.

Trends and Economics of Washington State Organic Vegetable Production

D. Granatstein, E. Kirby, and M. Brady. WSU Extension Fact Sheet EM097E. Sept. 2015. 29 pages. Contains details on area, value, yields, prices, and revenue per acre for organic sweet corn, green peas, snap beans, potatoes, onions, and carrot. Includes distributions of yields and prices, references on production costs, and break-even tables. Based on data from 2009-2012.

Bio-Oil: An Introduction to Fast Pyrolysis and its Applications

Murray, T.,  F. Resende, and G. Luo. 2014.  WSU Fact Sheet FS140E. The United States has targeted biofuels generated from domestic biomass supplies as a significant contributor for future liquid fuel supplies. Reliance on domestic fuel production opens the door for a wide range of opportunities for natural resource managers, farmers, and other landowners who will be instrumental in developing the industry, its technologies, and its utilization of agricultural crop residues and forestry biomass. This publication discusses bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis, its applications, and associated biomass feedstocks.

Current status of certified organic agriculture in Washington State: 2014

Kirby E. and D. Granatstein. A summary of the 2014 organic crop acres, livestock numbers and organic farm gate sales in the state, as well as some data on global trends.  Includes multi-year graphs of selected crops, dairy, and sales.  Powerpoint format.

Modeling environmental change: A guide to understanding model results that explore the impacts of climate change on regional environmental systems

Allen, E., G. Yorgey, K. Rajagopalan, and C. Kruger. 2015. WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS159E.

On-Farm Evaluation and Demonstration of Small-Scale Biogas Technology

Kruger, C. 2009.  Final Report to USDA SARE. This project supported the development, fabrication and demonstration of a biogas technology application for small farms.

Whatcom County Small-Scale Biogas Technology Poster

Trends and Economics of Washington State Organic Blueberry Production

Brady, M., E. Kirby, and D. Granatstein.  WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS154E. April 2015.

Washington Organic Agriculture at a Glance

A short summary of some key statistics about organic agriculture in the state, with data updated through 2013.

Anaerobic Digester Project and System Modifications: An Economic Analysis

Galinato, S., C. Kruger, and C. Frear.  2015. WSU Extension Publication EM090E.  This publication introduces readers to key concerns regarding the profitability of anaerobic digestion systems and includes a discussion of general project costs and potential revenue sources. This publication also examines the potential profitability of three alternative anaerobic digester systems: (a) combined heat and power, which is the baseline system; (b) boiler as a substitute for combined heat and power; and (c) renewable natural gas infrastructure.

Recent Trends in Certified Organic Tree Fruit: Washington State 2014

Kirby, E. and D. Granatstein.  Current statistics on organic tree fruit acreage trends, varieties, shipments, prices, and exports. Includes global area data as well as cost of production data for Washington. Annotated Powerpoint format.

Trends in Washington State Organic Berry Production, Acreage, and Crop Value

Kirby, E., M. Brady, and D. Granatstein.  WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS144E. 2014.

Precision Nitrogen Application: Eric Odberg Case Study

Yorgey, G., S. Kantor, K. Painter, H. Davis, and L. Bernacchi. 2014. Video and text farmer case study. Eric Odberg is a fourth generation farmer who practices no-till management and was an early adopter of variable rate nitrogen (VRN) application in the dryland production region of the Pacific Northwest.

Increasing resilience among cereal-based farmers in the Inland Pacific Northwest – Farmer to Farmer Case Studies

Yorgey, Georgine, Kathleen Painter, Hilary Davis, Kristy Borrelli, Sylvia Kantor, Leigh Bernacchi, R. Dennis Roe, Chad Kruger  2014.  Video and print case studies part of REACCH PNA project. The goal of these case studies to inspire others to take management risks on their farms that can improve their overall sustainability and resiliency into the future. Future case studies are in progress and will focus on farmers who manage water in irrigated systems, tillage practices and residue management in unique ways.

High Residue Farming Under Irrigation: Pest Management Considerations (series 4 of 4)

This publication is the fourth in a series on high residue farming (HRF), for farmers who are interested in HRF. This publication gives an overview of the effects of adopting HRF on the management of weeds, insects, and diseases. EM074E.

High Residue Farming Under Irrigation: Residue Management through Planting (series 3 of 4)

This publication is the third in a series on high residue farming (HRF), for farmers who are interested in HRF. It discusses residue management after harvest and explains how to plant crops into high residue conditions with a planter or drill. It also covers modifications for existing equipment such as planters and drills, and soil fertility adjustments that may be necessary. EM073E.

High Residue Farming Under Irrigation: Crop Rotation (series 2 of 4)

This publication is the second in a series on high residue farming (HRF), for farmers who are interested in HRF. It discusses how to choose a cropping sequence, choosing specific cover crops, and special crop considerations for irrigated cropping systems in the far western United States. It includes a very helpful table of crops that shows the relative difficulty of specific rotations. EM072E.

High Residue Farming Under Irrigation: What and Why (series 1 of 4)

This publication is the first in a series on high residue farming (HRF), for farmers who are interested in HRF. It provides an overview of HRF, including the benefits and challenges. It also discusses some special considerations for HRF in the irrigated agriculture regions of the far western United States. EM071E.

High Residue Farming under Irrigation: Strip-till

Extension Bulletin EM036E. Strip-tillage is a low-impact cultivation technique suited to irrigated land with a lot of residue from a previous crop. A strip-till system creates both clean-till and high-residue conditions in the same field, taking advantage of both systems while minimizing drawbacks. This publication discusses the benefits of this system, as well as equipment needed, general management concerns, and how to get started. A budget is also included to help growers determine the relative net cost of implementing this system. Originally published Jan 2011; revised Sept 2014.

The Rationale for Recovery of Phosphorus and Nitrogen from Dairy Manure

Yorgey, G., C. Frear, C. Kruger, T. Zimmerman. 2014. WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS136E.

Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food

Benbrook, C. and B. Baker. May 2014. Sustainability.

Productivity, economics, and fruit and soil quality of weed management systems in commercial organic orchards in Washington State, USA

Granatstein, D., P. Andrews, and A. Groff. May 2014. Organic Agriculture. DOI 10.1007/s13165-014-0068-0

Certified organic acreage and sales in Washington State: 2013

Detailed tables showing specific crop acreages from 2006-2013, farm numbers and organic acres by county, and organic farm gate sales by county (through 2012).

Current status of certified organic agriculture in Washington State: 2013

A summary of the 2013 organic crop acres, livestock numbers and organic farm gate sales in the state.  Includes multi-year graphs of selected crops. Powerpoint format.

Site-Specific Trade-offs of Harvesting Cereal Residues as Biofuel Feedstocks in Dryland Annual Cropping Systems of the Pacific Northwest, USA

Huggins, D.R., C.E. Kruger, K.M. Painter, D.P. Uberuaga. BioEnergy Research. June 2014, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 598-608.

BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

Adam, J. C., J. C. Stephens, S. H. Chung, M. P. Brady, R. D. Evans, C. E. Kruger, B. K. Lamb, M. Liu, C. O. Stöckle, J. K. Vaughan, K. Rajagopalan, J. A. Harrison, C. L. Tague, A. Kalyanaraman, Y. Chen, A. Guenther, F. Leung, L. R. Leung, A. B. Perleberg, J. Yoder, E. Allen, S. Anderson, B. Chandrasekharan, K. Malek, T. Mullis, C. Miller, T. Nergui, J. Poinsatte, J. Reyes, J. Zhu, J. S. Choate, X. Jiang, R. Nelson, J. Yoon, G. G. Yorgey, K. Johnson, K. J. Chinnayakanahalli, A. F. Hamlet, B. Nijssen, and V. Walden. Climatic Change, 2014. (DOI) 10.1007/s10584-014-1115-2

Nitrogen Management and Climate Change Mitigation in Pacific Northwest Cropping Systems

Yorgey, G. 2014. Recorded webinar. Part of Pacific Northwest Agriculture and Climate Change Webinar Series available here: .

Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Inland Pacific Northwest Cropping Systems

Yorgey, G. 2014. Recorded webinar. Part of Pacific Northwest Agriculture and Climate Change Webinar Series available here: .   Flux Tower 3-minute video referenced in presentation.

Nitrogen Cycling and Losses in Agricultural Systems

Borrelli, K. 2014. Recorded webinar. Part of Pacific Northwest Agriculture and Climate Change Webinar Series available here: .

Management to Reduce N2O Emissions in Organic Vegetable Production Systems

Cogger, C., A. Fortuna, D. Collins. Feb 27, 2014. The second of a two-part webinar series on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Quality in Long-term Integrated and Transitional Reduced Tillage Organic Systems.

This is the focus of our current research. How do different organic vegetable production systems affect N2O emissions, and how do other outcomes of those systems affect their potential for adoption?

  • Systems include full tillage with high-carbon amendment (compost), full tillage with low carbon amendment (broiler litter), pasture-vegetable rotation, and reduced tillage cover crop mulch.
  • Measurements include N2O and CO2 emissions, soil N, microbial ecology focused on denitrification organisms, crop yield, and soil quality. Measurements are focused on key times during the season, including amendment application and tillage, irrigation, and freeze-thaw.

Intended audience is other researchers, and interested extension faculty and farmers.

Why the Concern about Nitrous Oxide Emissions?

Cogger, C., A. Fortuna, D. Collins. Feb 25, 2014. The first of a two-part webinar series on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Quality in Long-term Integrated and Transitional Reduced Tillage Organic Systems.

Topics for this webinar include:

  • Source and properties of N2O as a greenhouse gas, its relative contribution to global
  • warming, and the role of agriculture in N2O emissions
  • Review of the nitrogen cycle and the production of N2O
  • The relationship between organic practices and N2O production
  • How we measure N2O emissions

Intended audience is extension faculty and farmers who want a big picture perspective on why we’re interested in nitrous oxide emissions.

Organic Apple Market Update

Miles, Matt. Current situation as of Jan. 1, 2014 and comparison of trends for this year’s crop versus last year.  Powerpoint format.

Organic Tree Fruit Trends 2013

Granatstein, D. and E. Kirby.  Current statistics on acreage trends, varieties, shipments, prices, and exports. Powerpoint format.

Agriculture – Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation

Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Susan M. Capalbo, Laurie L. Houston, Jodi Johnson-Maynard, Chad Kruger, & Beau Olen. Chapter 6 in, Dalton, M.M., P.W. Mote, and A.K. Snover [Eds.]. 2013. Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities. Washington, D.C. Island Press.

Organic Production Enhances Milk Nutritional Quality by Shifting Fatty Acid Composition: A United States-Wide, 18-Month Study

Benbrook CM, Butler G, Latif MA, Leifert C, Davis DR (2013) PLoS ONE 8(12):e82429.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082429  Key findings and media coverage available HERE.

Dairy Waste Biorefinery

Kennedy, N., C. Frear, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Kruger, and S. Chen. 2013. Concept illustration and description.

Survey Highlights: Farmers Markets and the Experiences of Market Managers in Washington State

Ostrom, M. & Donovan, C. 2013.

Economics of Dairy Digesters in Washington State

Kennedy, N. 2013.  BioCycle Magazine. Feasibility study supports a shift from the conventional CHP model to a renewable natural gas (RNG) model that takes advantage of the accelerating move to natural gas fuels in the transportation sector.

Life cycle assessment of the potential carbon credit from no- and reduced-tillage winter wheat-based cropping systems in Eastern Washington State

Zaher, U, C. Stockle, K. Painter, S. Higgins. Agricultural Systems. November 2013. Volume 122, pages 73-78.

Organic Waste Biorefinery

Kennedy, N., C. Frear, M. Garcia-Perez, C. Kruger, and S. Chen. 2013. Concept illustration and description.

Summary Report: Farmers Markets and the Experiences of Market Managers in Washington State

Ostrom, M. and C. Donovan. 2013.

Review of emerging nutrient recovery technologies for farm-based anaerobic digesters and other renewable energy systems

Prepared for Innovation Center for US Dairy by Jingwei Ma, Nick Kennedy, Georgine Yorgey and Craig Frear.  Nov 2013.  Washington State University.

The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion

Mitchell, S., J. Ullman, A. Teel, R. Watts, C. Frear.  Bioresource Technology Volume 149, December 2013, Pages 244–252.

Integrating Livestock into Dryland Organic Crop Rotations

Carpenter-Boggs, L., Painter, K., and Wachter, J. Recorded webinar presentation delivered October 22, 2013.  It covers a variety of reasons to integrate livestock into crop rotations, and summarizes past research on the topic. It is directed towards beginning growers interested in diversifying their income and crop rotations, towards educators and Extension workers, and towards a more general audience wanting to learn more about mixed crop-livestock systems.

Anaerobic Digestion

CSANR webpage.  Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process in which organic matter is converted into methane by bacteria in the absence of oxygen. Under typical dairy farm conditions manure is stored in open ponds and applied to fields, where decomposition often occurs under anaerobic conditions. This leads to the natural, open-air production of methane, a greenhouse gas with more than 20 times the warming value of carbon dioxide. By enclosing, controlling and accelerating this natural anaerobic conversion process, not only can the methane be contained, but it can be converted to renewable energy, providing two mechanisms for carbon sequestration and global warming reduction – methane capture/conversion and fossil-fuel energy offset.

Critical Research Needs for Successful Food Systems Adaptation to Climate Change

Miller, M., M. Anderson, C. Francis, C. Kruger, C. Barford, J. Park, and B. McCown. 2013.   Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development.

Profile of Small Farms in Washington State Agriculture

Ostrom, M. & C. Donovan. 2013. WSU Fact Sheet FS072E.  The fact sheet shows overall trends in farm numbers and the structure of agriculture in Washington.

Anaerobic Digestion (AD) Technology Certificate Program

Website highlighting a WSU – Bellingham Technical College partnership to offer training for anaerobic digestion technicians.  Full curriculum, videos and more available online.

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